It is a landlocked country of Central Europe. It shares borders with Slovakia, Germany, Poland and Austria. The three historical regions of Czech Republic are known as Czech Lands and include Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. The name of this country comes from the Slavic tribe of Czechs known as Čechové. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia was divided into Czech Republic and Slovakia. This split is called Velvet Divorce. Most of the area of Czech Republic is a mountainous terrain. Prague is the largest city of this country. Prague is also ranked fifth among the Europe’s most toured cities.
Date of Independence: 1 January, 1993
Capital City: Prague
Official Currency: Czech Crown or koruna (Kč)
Highest point (Śnieżka mountain): 1,602 metres (5,256 feet)
Popular Sports: Ice hockey, tennis and Football
- The evidence of earliest human settlement on this region dates back to Paleolithic or Age period. It was prehistoric time period when humans used tools that were made up of stones.
- Archeologists have found ancient female figure in Moravia known as Venus of Dolní Věstonice. This figure dates back to 29,000 to 25,000 BCE and 549 metres (1,801 feet) high. It is arguably the world’s oldest article made up of ceramic.
- From 3rd century to 1st century BC, the tribes of Boii, Marcomanni and Quadi came to this region. The Marcomanni and Quadi are Germanic tribes.
- The area which is now called Czech Republic is also known by its traditional name Bohemia. Historically, Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire. During different time periods of 20th century (1918 – 1939) and (1945 – 1992), Bohemia came under Czechoslovakia. After the dissolution in 1993, it became part of Czech Republic. Today, it has a population of 6 million people. The first ruler of Bohemia was Maroboduus.
- In the 9th century, Duchy of Bohemia gained independence from Great Moravian Empire, the slavic-speaking people. Great Moravia was a prominent state of this region and included areas of Czech Republic and Slovakia. It became part of Roman Empire in 1004. After another 200 years, it was declared Kingdom of Bohemia. From 14th to 17th centuries, Prague served as the imperial seat of Roman Empire. After the fall of this empire in 1806, the Kingdom of Bohemia came under Austrian Empire.
- In October 1918, Czechoslovakia gained freedom from Austro-Hungarian Empire and became an independent country. However in 1993, it was divided into Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- From 9th century till the beginning of 14th century, Bohemia and Moravia were ruled by Přemyslids Dynasty.
- Since 14th century, this state was called by the name of ‘the lands of the Bohemian crown’.
- It has a population of 10.5 million.
- The ethnic tribes living in this country are Poles, Slovaks, Moravians and Czechs. Almost two-thirds (64 percent) of the population of Czech Republic consists of Czechs.
- About 34 percent of the Czech people are Christians (2012).
Geography and Climate
- It has an area of 78,866 square kilometers.
- It has a temperate continental climate. Average temperature of this climate reaches 10 °C (50 °F) in the hottest days and −3 °C in coldest days.
- Louny District is the driest place of this country and the wettest region is Bílý Potok.
- The official language of this country is Czech. Bohemian was its previous name and it contains a lot of German and Latin words. It is similar to the Slovak language.
Interesting Facts about Czech Republic
- In terms of per capita consumption of beer, Czech Republic is ranked top of the world where highest percentage of people consume beer. The most popular beer in this state is pale lager, which is pale yellow to golden color.
- Plzeň, located to the west of Bohemia in Czech Republic, is the home of Pilsner beer. Pilsner beer was produced here for the first time in 1842 by Josef Groll. It was the first such drink every produced with pale to golden color and named as Pilsner Urquell. Almost two-thirds of the beer produced around the world consists of Pils (Pilsner Urquell).
- It is one of the top ten countries in the world that has fastest speed of internet.
- It stands at the fifth position among the world’s most environmental-conscious states (Environmental Performance Index).
- It is ranked at the 10th position among the most peaceful states of the world (Global Peace Index).
- It stood at the 13th position in the world that have free press (Reporters Without Borders, 2014).
- It is ranked 14th among the largest cities of European Union.
- In terms of best education systems in the world, Czech Republic is ranked at the 15th position.
- As for economic freedom, the country is ranked 24th in the world (Index of Economic Freedom, 2015).
- Established in 1850 by the name of Schustala & Company, Tatra car manufacturing company of Czech Republic is ranked third among the oldest car making companies in the world.
- During the early years of 20th century, Chicago ranked third among the cities that have highest percentage of Czechs. The first two are Prague and Vienna.
- In terms of percentage, Czech Republic ranks third in the world where a large number of people do not believe in God. The first two countries with highest number of atheists are China and Japan.
- The oldest churches of this country were built on the style of Romanesque architecture in medieval Europe.
- Czech Republic is home to 3 national parks and 46 airports.
- Nuclear power accounts for nearly 30 percent of the energy needs of this country.
- Built in 1895, the car manufacturing company Škoda Auto of the Czech Republic is among one of the biggest companies in Central Europe.
- The principal airport of this country is Václav Havel Airport Prague which is ranked as the fifth busiest airport in Europe.
- The railway networks of this country are one of the densest in Europe.
- At the end of 2015, the economic growth rate of this country was 4.5 percent, which is the highest in Europe.
- In March 1978, the first and only Czech to go into space was Vladimír Remek.
- Jan Evangelista Purkyně was a Czech scientist. He coined the word ‘protoplasm’ in 1839. Protoplasm is a content of a cell covered by plasma membrane.
- A Czech psychiatrist Jan Janský was the first person to classify blood into four types.
- Contact lenses were invented by a Czech chemist called Otto Wichterle.
- Aquapalace Praha is the largest of all the water parks in Central Europe.
- Out of all the 28-members European Union states, Czech Republic has the lowest rate of unemployment (4.1 percent).
- Czech Republic is one of the 26 countries of Europe that has removed border restrictions between them. This region is called Schengen Area. Therefore, practically there are no borders between Czech Republic and its neighbors.